Monday, 9 January 2017

EMERGING SPECIALITY OF SPORTS PHARMACY

Image result for sports pharmacyParticipation in sport and exercise is undertaken at all levels, from amateur enthusiasts to elite athletes. Pharmacists are frequently approached by people who engage in sport and exercise for advice about drug treatment or on general healthcare associated with their participation in sport. There is a growing need for specialist pharmacists in the area of sport and exercise in order to fulfil this valuable healthcare role. These specialists may be described as sports pharmacists.

In this article the authors will draw on their recent experiences of working with pharmacists in a sport-orientated environment and then speculate on how these experiences may be used to develop the concept of sports pharmacists on an international scale.

RECENT EXPERIENCES OF SPORTS PHARMACY
The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games
The 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games were awarded to the City of London in 2005. The London Organising Committee for the Olympic and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) was established to plan and deliver the Games.

PHARMACY CAREER: THE FUTURE BUILDING PROFESSION

With a Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy (BScPharm) degree, you’ll have a wide range of career opportunities. The majority of graduates enter community pharmacy practice. You might also find working in a hospital pharmacy an interesting challenge, particularly in view of pharmacists’ expanding role within the clinical setting. As well, the pharmaceutical industry provides opportunities for pharmacists in the fields of sales and marketing, production, research, and quality control.
  1. Pharmacist
  2. Pharmaceutical sales
  3. Drug researcher
  4. Clinical specialty practices in such areas as infectious diseases, pediatrics, psychiatry, intensive care, or cardiology
  5. Policy maker or advisor in federal or provincial government, regarding drug products and pharmacy practice
  6. Lawyer, journalist or consultant specializing in pharmaceutical issues.
  7. Academic Pharmacy
  8. Ambulatory Care Pharmacist
  9. Community Pharmacy
  10. Consultant Pharmacy
  11. Federal Pharmacy - Armed Services
  12. Federal Pharmacy - Public Health
  13. Hospital and Institutional Pharmacy
  14. Informatics
  15. Managed Care Pharmacy
  16. Pharmaceutical Sciences/Industry

The increased role of federal and provincial governments in public health has provided opportunities for pharmacists in analytical laboratories and in administrative positions as consultantsgovernment inspectors, and health officers. Opportunities are also available in universities as teachers and researchers.
If you wish to practice as a licensed pharmacist, you’ll need a Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy (BScPharm). If you wish to teach or do research, a Master of Science (MSc) degree or further postgraduate study is usually required.
In a self-reporting poll, 100% of 2010 graduates from Dalhousie’s College of Pharmacy were employed upon graduation. Some of their careers include:
  • THE GATEWAY TO THE PROFESSION :

Friday, 6 January 2017

Oncology pharmacist : The cancer counsellor

Davina Lau is lead pharmacist, oncology, at London Bridge Hospital, a private hospital owned by HCA Healthcare UK.

Why did you decide to go into hospital pharmacy?

I had a taste of hospital pharmacy as an intern pharmacist (preregistration trainee) in New Zealand so when an opening for a hospital position in Australia came up with an oncology rotation, I applied for it. Back then, few pharmacists were interested in oncology and interns were a novelty because there were so few of us. I went into hospital pharmacy primarily because I was interested in oncology — it was different from what we were exposed to as students and interns.

How and why did you become an oncology specialist?

I spent several years working in different hospitals in different countries as an oncology, haematology, aseptic and palliative care pharmacist. I also undertook postgraduate courses and attended plenty of after-hour lectures, seminars and conferences in oncology and haematology. I was interested in oncology because I believed it was where a pharmacist could make a significant impact on the wards.
Oncology patients have limited chances at fighting their disease, and every opportunity they have is an important one. As patients come back for their treatments every fortnight or every three weeks, you build a relationship with them and their families and it becomes a personal journey for the pharmacist too. You become an unofficial counsellor, proverbial punching bag and cheerleader, as well as being their pharmacist. Survival rates have increased since I was an intern, and it is gratifying to be able to tell patients that we have a plethora of agents now to help them fight their disease.

What are your responsibilities and typical tasks in your current role?

Our team is relatively small so my role still requires me to complete operational tasks on most days. With the help of senior oncology pharmacists, I oversee the daily running of the inpatient ward, aseptic suite, chemo day unit and any oncology-associated processes in the dispensary.
As an independent prescriber in the chemotherapy day unit, I see patients and assess their side effects related to chemotherapy. If an existing treatment is being continued, I prescribe medicines within my scope of practice. If I need a second opinion, I contact the consultant to discuss options. Once decided, I prescribe according to the outcome of our discussion. This includes chemotherapies with doses that change depending on renal or hepatic function. Everything is documented on MOSAIQ (our electronic prescribing system) so that there is an accessible audit trail.

Thursday, 22 December 2016

Theories and Mechanism of dissolution

In order for an active pharmaceutical ingredient to be bioavailable, it has to be dissolved. Thus, solubility and dissolution measurements are  necessary requirements to estimate the drugs bioavailability:
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  • In theory, the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) is proportional to the solubility of the compound – i.e. in many cases a very good estimate of IDR can be obtained directly from a solubility measurement: Low solubility = low IDR and vice versa.
  •  It also implies that the dissolution rate is proportional to the solubility (but here the particle size/the surface area of the particles should also be taken into account).
  • However, in some cases the liberation af molecules from the surface into water is not ideal – and the dissolution rate will be lower or higher than theoretically calculated. Thus, in order to determine whether your compound behaves ”ideal”, a measurement of IDR is neccessary.

Click here for learning more about theories and mechanism of dissolution in detail.

How to be a FDA Inspector: Pharma Oppurtunity

FDA auditors -- also known as FDA inspectors -- have many responsibilities. They investigate complaints of illness, injury, and death related to food, develop new inspection procedures, plan, and direct food regulatory programs, advise officials on policies and regulations, and take action against FDA violations. As such, an FDA auditor is someone who has a balance of specific education and specific work experience. He is not only educated regarding aspects of chemistry, biology, and medicine but already has experience as a food inspector prior to joining the FDA.
Complete your education
There is not a specific degree requirement, but in order to be an FDA Inspector, you will need to have at least a bachelor's degree with at least 30 credit hours in some combination of biology, chemistry, nutrition, food technology, medical science, engineering, and pharmaceutical medicine. A master's degree or higher in one of the above subjects can also help you to secure a higher position with the FDA.

Complete classes in statistics 
Classes that include the theory, principles, or application of computer programming or computers. Up to 8 credit hours of such classes can contribute to the 30 credit-hour requirement above, and can better prepare you for some of the computer work you will be doing for the FDA.
Gain food inspection experience
Before becoming an FDA inspector, you can still inspect food in other capacities. Many major food corporations hire quality managers to make sure that their food meets the guidelines set by the FDA. This will give you direct, on-the-job training and practical experience as it relates to food inspection, which is the best preparation you can have for what you will be doing with the FDA.
Find jobs through USAJobs.gov. This website is where the government posts all openings, including those for FDA Auditors.When you have found the job(s) you wish to apply for, submit your resume, cover letter, and any other requested material through the website.

Monday, 12 December 2016

Career in Clinical Research

Clinical Research is one of those career options which can fulfill your dreams and put you on an interesting career path with a faster growth ladder if you are the right person for the profile. There are examples in Industry where, in a span of five-six years entry level, CRAs have progressed to become project managers and higher related positions higher related positions


The best way to enter this industry is through the position of a Clinical Research Associate or commonly called a CRA or Study Monitor. Although well established, most science graduates are not aware of this area and awareness programs need to be conducted at student forums and through other media. 

Educational Qualifications :

1. The qualification requirement opens this area to a very large group of science and medical graduates which is the major advantage of this area. 



2. The suitable candidate for this position can be anyone with a life science degree or a biomedical degree with backgrounds of pharmacology, pharmacy, biochemistry or medical doctor or a nursing degree but with a flair for understanding all relevant guidelines and niche for effective implementation of the same. 


3. Full training will be provided before you can effectively monitor - in ICH-GCP and how this applies to working practices and SOPs at your employer’s business. 

The clinical research associate (CRA). A CRA represents the sponsor company and ensures that proper procedures are followed during the complex, long, expensive clinical trials process.
A CRA position is the most popular way to enter clinical careers, partly because such positions are relatively abundant. CRAs are employed both by sponsor companies and by contract research organizations (CROs), companies engaged by pharmaceutical and biotech companies to help chaperone a drug through clinical trials. Some CRAs enjoy the constant change and the variety of people and drugs they get to work with at a CRO, whereas others prefer to work for a drug company where they can follow a new therapy all the way through.
Either way, a CRA job is heavy in paperwork and requires good organizational and people skills. There's always a lot of travel, as the CRA moves from trial site to trial site, monitoring the trials activities, coordinating documentation, and meeting with clinical investigators.
The data manager. The data manager and his or her team are the architects of systems that produce data. And because the product of clinical trials is data -- lots of data -- this job is an important one. Before a trial begins, the data manager and her team review draft protocols for the study to ensure that the trial is designed from the beginning with accurate and precise instructions for those responsible for implementing the protocol. The team writes a trial's data-management plan and confirms that all the reporting forms and data-transfer procedures make sense. Once a trial is under way, the group reviews incoming data and maintains its database, ensuring that everyone is following the rules, then hands off the data to the biostatisticians for review.
The biostatistician. The product of a trial -- the data -- has to be analyzed and interpreted when it starts coming back from the study sites. This is where the biostatistician comes in. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will approve a product only if the data meets certain statistical criteria, so position is very important in a trial's success. Sponsor drug companies use biostatisticians before a trial begins to help set the parameters for data collection and review. But their main work is analyzing the trial data and extracting results.
Because statistics are known to be massaged from time to time to suit the needs of a pharmaceutical company, this area of work is highly regulated. Biostatisticians (and other clinical staff members) are expected to be honest and ethical in their work; the field has its own codes of ethics. Company-employed biostatisticians may be tempted or urged to overemphasize the positive, but they cannot hide the negative.
 The clinical quality assurance auditor. Clinical quality assurance (CQA) auditors inspect all documents and processes for a study to ensure that they all comply with good clinical practice (GCP) guidelines and standard operating procedures (SOPs). This book includes a handy list of the most common acronyms. There are many.
Today, studies are done all over the world, and there is increasing pressure to harmonize standards and procedures. The CQA auditor is in the thick of things in the regulated world of clinical studies, ensuring compliance with ever-changing rules and regulations.
 Clinical safety. The clinical safety professional is responsible for monitoring, coding, organizing, and tracking adverse events that occur during a trial. The clinical safety person is really a patient advocate. He or she must track negative results that occur in a trial and ensure that each patient is given the appropriate medical care. The clinical safety specialist is responsible for reporting adverse events to FDA. Nurses dominate the field, although it's possible for other degree holders to enter if they've had 2 to 4 years of clinical experience.
 The medical writer. One of the most frequent questions we get on the Career Discussion Forum is "how do I get a job as a medical writer?" Given the volumes of information that come out of a clinical trial, there's a lot to write about. Pharmaceutical companies, hospitals, and other clinical trial sites, government agencies, and marketing companies (also known as medical communications companies) employ medical writers. Here are some previous links for material already published on Science Careers about the medical writing career.

Entry Options to the Clinical Research Industry :

CRAs are employed in multiple organizations and first you need to understand how these organisations hire CRAs and how you can join the best of these organizations. Over the years, now due to high competition in this area, these options have increased. The present trend of organizations hiring CRAs is as follows: 

Let’s first see the models and then we will discuss approaches to each option to gain a successful entry as each one is different from the other. 

1. Employment in contract research organizations 


2. Employment in site management organizations 

3. Employment in major hospitals handling large number of studies 


4. Employment in outsourcing organizations 


5. Employment in pharmaceutical companies 

6. Employment as freelance CRAs to multiple clients 

Friday, 9 December 2016

Sports Medicine Compounding

Make sure your active, healthy lifestyle stays that way.

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Running backs for pro football teams rely upon topical compounds to help them recover from game aches. Major league pitchers recover from inflammation to the throwing shoulder more quickly due to topical agents prepared by compounding pharmacists working in conjunction with team healthcare providers. The secret they use to get back in the game is pharmacy compounding, and it’s available for everyone – not just the pros.
Whether you’re a workout enthusiast who needs to soothe aches and strains, a high school player recovering from a sports injury, or a weekend warrior trying to ease pain during the work week, compounding can provide serious benefits for every kind of athlete.

Unique Athletes, Individual Medication

Pharmacy compounding is the art and science of preparing customized medications for patients. In recent years, compounding has experienced a renaissance as modern technology and innovative techniques and research allow many healthcare providers to work with pharmacists to customize medications to provide their patients with the benefit of medications tailored specifically for certain needs.